Authors: Tobias J. Osborne, Michael A. Nielsen
Abstract: What entanglement is present in naturally occurring physical systems at thermal equilibrium? Most such systems are intractable and it is desirable to study simple but realistic systems which can be solved. An example of such a system is the 1D infinite-lattice anisotropic XY model. This model is exactly solvable using the Jordan-Wigner transform, and it is possible to calculate the two-site reduced density matrix for all pairs of sites. Using the two-site density matrix, the entanglement of formation between any two sites is calculated for all parameter values and temperatures. We also study the entanglement in the transverse Ising model, a special case of the XY model, which exhibits a quantum phase transition. It is found that the next-nearest neighbour entanglement (though not the nearest-neighbour entanglement) is a maximum at the critical point. Furthermore, we show that the critical point in the transverse Ising model corresponds to a transition in the behaviour of the entanglement between a single site and the remainder of the lattice.